Wednesday, August 26, 2020
The old perfect the Greeks in old occasions and instruction the inclination today work arranged training the downsides of specialization instruction for job. The old perfect of training was that instruction ought to be forever and not for job. Information was viewed as an end in itself and not an unfortunate chore. The old perfect of training was a liberal one. Understudies were required to make an investigation of an assortment of subjects, with the goal that they could make a similar report and build up their judgment and basic personnel. Information was viewed as a significant belonging which one needed to attempt to secure with much difficulty and trouble. Old researchers barely cared about making a trip to removed, grounds to drink at the wellspring head of information. They would look for learned instructors and become their willing supporters. The antiquated Greeks held the view that training needed to assist a man with having a fair and all around coordinated character. We will compose a custom exposition test on Sarans Essays or then again any comparable theme explicitly for you Don't WasteYour Time Recruit WRITER Just 13.90/page It needed to assist him with achieving agreement inside his own being by accomplishing an equalization of body, psyche and soul. It had additionally to assist him with achieving concordance with his condition and his kindred individuals. Instruction forever is intended to make a man liberal, open minded and progressive in his standpoint. The propensity today, be that as it may, is towards accommodating a Business Education or an Education for Livelihood. Todays training is a vocation arranged instruction. Therefore, numerous Business Colleges have jumped up which should prepare individuals for specific occupations. The information conferred in these schools is somewhat restricted in scope. It is confined to whatever is associated with an exceptional calling or exchange. Despite the fact that specialization should shelter carefulness and proficiency, it has its own disadvantage. The understudies who go in for a Business Education become intolerant. They need resilience and the capacity to comprehend anothers perspective. They study everything from the view purpose of convenience and not for tasteful joy. They will most likely be unable to unwind and appreciate a book for the good of its own in the event that it has no association with their exchange or calling. They may always be unable to enter and appreciate the enchantment districts of craftsmanship and writing. Training for business doesn't urge an understudy to have an independent mind and to build up his inventive and basic resources. As his field of study is tight, he doesn't get an opportunity to make a near report, to pass judgment on the benefits and bad marks of different subjects.
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Freedom, Equlaity, Power - Essay Example They are widely signified in the bill of rights. Prior to the battle for freedom, African American men were not permitted to cast a ballot. In any case, with the fifteenth amendment, they picked up the option to cast a ballot. The feature of balance depends on participation of a network. The new section of correspondence developed through battle for citizenship in the American culture through common developments. Criminal equity approaches been created to change the issue of victimization the minorities in the United States. During the servitude time frame, individuals of the shading were victimized. It was dubious for them to make sure about steady employments much after the finish of subjugation. Great lodging and social administrations were denied inferable from criminal records, which exuded because of laws that had been set up to victimize them. All things considered, insurgency made a space for fairness. The common was an initial entryway for the finish of disparity. In spite of the fact that there was thought that social equality changes would have assisted with completion prejudice and monetary abuse, various types of segregation and misuse developed. This was accomplished through control of law th rough lawful moving, which guaranteed that there were contorted expressions of the law that empowered disparity. For example, in 1896, the well known Supreme Court administering with the expression Ã¢â¬Å"separate however equalÃ¢â¬ is an ideal model that empowered disparity. This was the situation of Plessy v. Ferguson, 163 U.S. 537 (1896). By and by, criminal judges arrangements can be contended to in a roundabout way underwrite the issue of disparity. Mass capture and imprisonment of non-white individuals have been clear. In the year 2007, there were more than 2 million individuals restricted in US jails, however the greater parts were dark and earthy colored individuals. Indeed, the insights demonstrates that one out of three African American men is detained. Furthermore, mass imprisonment is exceptionally
Thursday, August 20, 2020
Epidemiological Analysis Of Infectious Disease Term Paper Epidemiological Analysis Of Infectious Disease â" Term Paper Example > Epidemiological Analysis of InfluenzaIntroduction: Influenza is referred by medics professionals as flu (Jonathan, 2006). Influenza is an infectious disease (Kawaoka, 2006) caused mostly by RNA viruses, which affect mammals and birds (Lynch Walsh, 2007). The common symptoms of the influenza include sore throat, fever, muscle pains, chills, weakness/fatigue, and general discomfort (Kawaoka, 2006). The most frequent among these symptoms include Sore throat, fever and coughs. In extraneous levels, the disease is a major cause of pneumonia, which results into fatal complications. This is more particularly to the children and the elderly (Lynch Walsh, 2007). This paper provides an analysis of Influenza as an infectious disease. It gives an epidemiological analysis of the disease and derives the impact the respective analysis has had on organizations as well as health providers. Influenza Research StatusMany conditions are confused to be influenza including influenza-like illnesses as the case of a common cold. This has had a major impact on healthcare provision as well as organizations operations calling for more research to clarify the issue (Mack, 2005). Following the analysis, a research was instituted by organizations on influenza including main studies on molecular virology (Lynch Walsh, 2007). The research objective was to verify how the influenza virus produces the disease, that is, pathogenesis, viral genomics, host immune responses (Mack, 2005), and how the disease spreads, (Kawaoka, 2006). These studies have been of great help in the development of the disease countermeasures to develop knowledge on the perfect response of the human body's immune system to influenza helping in the development of the right vaccine. Genome Project that concentrated on Influenza (Jonathan, 2006) is a part of the basic research programs conducted by the organization as an approach to discover the way forward for restraining the virus. It created a library of the virus sequences and clarified some of the factors that contributed to the worsening of the infectious virus (Kawaoka, 2006). Transmission of InfluenzaFrom researches conducted globally, the most established and common influenza transmission is through the air (Jonathan, 2006) mostly when terminated by sneezes and coughs. The respective means of transmission create aerosols that contain the influenza viruses. Influenza transmission can also happen through droppings mostly from infected birds or sometimes-through human nasal secretions (Kawaoka, 2006). Another major cause is from touching contaminated surfaces and not adhering to proper washing of hands (Jonathan, 2006). Airborne aerosols are the major transmission means of the infectious disease and are the high rated means of transmitting the disease. Consequently, the aerosols are the means of transmission that are not understood clearly up to date. Healthcare providers have had a rough time in dealing with patients without a clear pers pective of what they suffer from. There has been a global outcry of doctors dying after an infection of the virus from patients making it complicated on the ethical considerations in the field of healthcare provision. The outcry has brought to light some of the resurgent complains from various departments of healthcare on the safety of the healthcare providers in their process of handling Influenza virus cases and its outcomes when coming into contact with patients (Jonathan, 2006).
Sunday, May 24, 2020
Yes. It was ethical for Mander to expose both the FBI and NSA for their corruption. In choosing his course of action, he did not violate any of the tenets of the Principle of Respect for Persons: he did give every person sympathetic consideration by not rushing to judgement and taking the necessary time to consider the evidence before forming a conclusion. Furthermore, Mander did not treat another individual as a mere possession that was expendable. On the contrary, by exposing the FBI and NSA for their corruption, he ensured the abuse would be uncovered, increasing the likelihood the charges against Raheem would be dropped. By choosing to expose corrupt government agencies, he thoroughly considered the potential repercussions his actionsÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Mander also appears to have sustained his employment and contractual obligation to his employer, Raheem, and ACLU, as he continued to to uphold his ethical responsibilities, conduct his work in an unbiased and uniform manner, look out for the best interests of all parties involved, and reported the truth about his findings. Further, by exposing the NSA and FBI for their corruption, Mander also upheld his professional obligation to both the people of the United States and the digital forensic profession, by reporting any unethical, illegal, or incorrect behavior, upholding the trust of the public, and looking out for their best interests. As for the consequences of his actions Mander likely left himself, Raheem, the ACLU, Cornbelt University, and the digital forensic profession open to gaining a more positive reputation and receiving positive press for alerting the public to the corruption. Beyond the immediate rewards, ManderÃ¢â¬â¢s actions have resulted in many positive consequences, for the greatest number of individuals, as in regards to the public, their interests would be met and justice would be served as the agencies would be held accountable for their actions; the reputation of Raheem , Mander, the digital forensic profession, Cornbelt University, and the ACLU would increase and be restored; and most importantly ethical standards and conduct would be upheld. From a Utilitarian perspective, the essentialShow MoreRelatedLogical Reasoning189930 Words Ã |Ã 760 PagesNoncommercial You may not use this work for commercial purposes (for example, by inserting passages into a book that is sold to students). (3) No Derivative Works You may not alter, transform, or build upon this work. An earlier version of the book was published by Wadsworth Publishing Company, Belmont, California USA in 1993 with ISBN number 0-534-17688-7. When Wadsworth decided no longer to print the book, they returned their publishing rights to the original author, Bradley Dowden. The currentRead MoreOne Significant Change That Has Occurred in the World Between 1900 and 2005. Explain the Impact This Change Has Made on Our Lives and Why It Is an Important Change.163893 Words Ã |Ã 656 Pagesarrived, and there were several points both before the year 2000 (the collapse of the Soviet Union, the reunification of Germany, the surge of globalization from the mid-1990s) and afterward (9/11, or the global recession of 2008) when one could quite plausibly argue that a new era had begun. A compelling case can be made for viewing the decades of the global scramble for colonies after 1870 as a predictable culmination of the long nineteenth century, which was ushered in by the industrial and political
Wednesday, May 13, 2020
2013 left an incandescent mark for DisneyÃ¢â¬â¢s economical future thanks to Frozen. The well-respected and highly esteemed company, Walt Disney Pictures, owns the Scandinavian influenced movie. The man himself, Walt Disney, and Roy E. Disney founded Walt Disney Pictures in 1923. It is an American film production company and division of the Walt Disney Studios. The Walt Disney Company is the second largest conglomerate in the world Ã¢â¬â giving the title of second largest film Production Company to Walt Disney Studios. The movie Frozen was released on November 10th, 2013 in the United States and was later made public to the citizens of the United Kingdom in December 2013. It is DisneyÃ¢â¬â¢s 53rd animated feature and is the highest grossingÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦From a business to consumer standpoint, the 101st day of release marks the $1 billion dollar mark. IMDb rated it a 7.6 out of 10 and it surpassed the 80% mark from the highly critical Ã¢â¬â Rotten Tomatoes. Consumers have also provided a meaning for Common Sense Media to give the film a 5 out of 5. The movie is also available on DVD and Blu-Ray. It was released on the 31st of March in 2014 and sold over 500,000 copies in the first few days. By the end of the first three weeks of release, it had sold 1.45 million units Ã¢â¬â making it the biggest selling movie title of 2014. Due to the flourishing Digital Revolution, digital convergence with Frozen was soon involved. The movie was made available on Febraury 25th, 2014 for digital download via Google Play, Amazon Video, and the iTunes Store Ã¢â¬â meaning iPads, Tablets, and iPhones everywhere. While Walt Disney Pictures has provided an animated well-oiled machine, it is important to note the factors behind its production. With every film or television programme comes research and strategies. Risk Reduction strategies is quintessential within every television and film related company. Films can fall flat, films can disappoint, sometimes there is no vested interest, and it varies. One must be able to understand the many facets, including and not limited to repetition and formats, audience research, and more. The concept behind repetition and formats is to
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Robert Frost Robert Frost once debated whether the world ended in fire, or ice. It is a sad thought that the world will end without him; that the future generations will be privy to such events made for people like Robert. He was an inspirational, American poet who questioned the very core of our beliefs, he chose paths that few had took, and that is why today he is remembered today. We will write a custom essay sample on Eulogy -Robert Frost or any similar topic only for you Order Now Robert Frost was born in San Francisco on March 26, 1874. His family moved to New England when he was eleven; he became interested in reading and writing poetry during his high school years in Lawrence, Massachusetts. He earned his formal degree at the arguably the most prestigious University, Harvard. He later worked through various occupations, ranging from teacher to editor of the Lawrence Sentinel. His first professional poem, Ã¢â¬Å"My ButterflyÃ¢â¬ , was published on November 8, 1894, in The Independent newspaper. In a 1970 review of The Poetry of Robert Frost, the poet Daniel Hoffman describes FrostÃ¢â¬â¢s early work as Ã¢â¬Å"the Puritan ethic turned astonishingly lyrical and enabled to say out loud the sources of its own delight in the world,Ã¢â¬ and comments on FrostÃ¢â¬â¢s career as The American Bard: Ã¢â¬Å"He became a national celebrity, our nearly official Poet Laureate, and a great performer in the tradition of that earlier master of the literary vernacular, Mark Twain. Ã¢â¬ About Frost, President John F. Kennedy said, Ã¢â¬Å"He has bequeathed his nation a body of imperishable verse from which Americans will forever gain joy and understanding. Though his work is predominantly associated with the life and scenery of New England, and though he was a poet of traditional verse forms and metrics who remained unfalteringly detached from the poetic movements and fashions of his time, Frost is anything but a merely regional or minor poet. The author of searching and often dark medit ations on universal themes he is essentially a modern poet who spoke truthfully in all that encompasses, his work inspired psychological battles inside ourselves, his works were fused with layers of obscurity and irony. Robert Frost lived and taught for many years in Massachusetts and Vermont, and died in Boston on January 29, 1963. Two poems that debatably epitomize what Robert Frost stood for, what he believed in, how he opened the minds of many people to what is; These two poems are Ã¢â¬Ëfire and iceÃ¢â¬â¢, and Ã¢â¬Ëthe road not takenÃ¢â¬â¢. The short poem Ã¢â¬Ëfire and iceÃ¢â¬â¢, outlines the familiar question about the destiny of the end of world, wondering if it is more likely to be devastated by fire or ice. People are on both sides of the debate, and Frost introduces the narrator to provide his personal take on the question of the end of the world. The narrator first determines that the world must end in fire after bearing in mind his personal experiences with desire and passion, the emotions of fire. Yet, after considering his experience with Ã¢â¬Å"ice,Ã¢â¬ or hatred, the narrator acknowledges that ice would be equally destructive. A reading will now be done of the poem: Some say the world will end in fire, Some say in ice. From what IÃ¢â¬â¢ve tasted of desire I hold with those who favor fire. But if it had to perish twice, I think I know enough of hate To say that for destruction ice Is also great And would suffice. Only nine lines, this miniature poem is a vivid example of FrostÃ¢â¬â¢s concisely ironic literary style. The poem varies between two meter lengths (either eight syllables or four syllables) and uses three collections of interwoven rhymes, based on Ã¢â¬Å"-ire,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"-ice,Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"-ate. Ã¢â¬ In the first two lines of the poem, Frost creates a clear dichotomy between fire and ice and the two groups of people that believe in each element. By using the term Ã¢â¬Å"someÃ¢â¬ instead of Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"an individual,Ã¢â¬ Frost emphasizes that the distinction between the two elements is a universal truth, not just an idea promoted by an individual. In addition to the unavoidable contradiction between fire and ice, these first lines also outline the prerogative that the world will end as a direct result of one of these elements. It is made unclear which element will lead to the destruction of the world, but it is noteworthy to know that these are the only two options given. The poem does not allow for any other possibilities in terms of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s fate, just as there are not any other opinions allowed in the black-and-white debate between fire and ice. Remarkably, the two prospects for the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s destruction correspond directly to a common scientific debate during the time Frost wrote the poem. Much like this poem, scientists also debated the eventual end to the Earth, on one side; some believed the Earth will be destroyed by the burning magma core, incinerating the Earth to nothing, while others believed that a new Ice Age would wither all livings things on the earthÃ¢â¬â¢s surface. Instead of preserving a strictly scientific perspective on this debate, Frost introduces a more emotional side, associating passionate desire with fire and hatred with ice. Within this metaphorical view of the two elements, the Ã¢â¬Å"worldÃ¢â¬ can be recognized as a metaphor for and consequently foregrounding to the audience, a relationship. Too much fire and passion can quickly consume a relationship, while cold indifference and hate can be equally destructive Although the first two lines of the poem insist that there can only be a single choice between fire and ice, the narrator further details that a combination or a concurring sequence of both elements would destroy the Earth. Furthermore, the fact that he has had personal experience with both (in the form of desire and hate) reveals that fire and ice are not mutually exclusive, as the first two lines of the poem assert. In fact, though the narrator first concludes that the world will end in fire, he ultimately admits that the world could just as easily end in ice; fire and ice, it seems, are strikingly similar. This further highlights what Frost believes in relationships. That, although a concentration of one emotion, passion or hatred can be destructive he poses that one cannot be without both of them existing. The second poem analysed will be Ã¢â¬ËThe road not takenÃ¢â¬â¢. The narrator comes upon a fork in the road while walking through a yellow wood. He considers both paths and concludes that each one is equally well-travelled and appealing. After choosing a path, the narrator when he will come back to the fork to choose the different path, he later realises this will possibly never happen but that he will only come to new forks (new decisions), his mind then ponders on how different his life would have been if he chose the different path, a reading will now be done. Two roads diverged in a yellow wood, And sorry I could not travel both And be one traveler, long I stood And looked down one as far as I could To where it bent in the undergrowth; Then took the other, as just as fair, And having perhaps the better claim, Because it was grassy and wanted wear; Though as for that the passing there Had worn them really about the same, And both that morning equally lay In leaves no step had trodden black. Oh, I kept the first for another day! Yet knowing how way leads on to way, I doubted if I should ever come back. I shall be telling this with a sigh Somewhere ages and ages hence: Two roads diverged in a wood, and IÃ¢â¬â I took the one less travelled by, And that has made all the difference. This poem is made up of four stanzas of five lines, each with a rhyme scheme of ABAAB. This poem is one of FrostÃ¢â¬â¢s most adored works and is used many times in English studies. Since its publication, many readers have analysed the poem as a nostalgic observation on life choices. The narrator decided to seize the day and express himself as an individual by choosing the road that was Ã¢â¬Å"less travelled by. As a result of this decision, the narrator claims that his life was essentially different, that it would have been had he chosen the well-travelled path. This reading of the poem is tremendously popular because every reader can commiserate with the narratorÃ¢â¬â¢s decision: having to choose between two paths without having any knowledge of where each road will lead. Moreover, the narratorÃ¢â¬ â¢s decision to choose the Ã¢â¬Å"less travelledÃ¢â¬ path demonstrates his courage. Rather than taking the safe path that others have travelled, the narrator prefers to make his own way in the world. However, when we look closer at the text of the poem, it becomes clear that such an idealistic analysis is largely inaccurate. The narrator only distinguishes the paths from one another after he has already selected one and travelled many years through life. When he first comes upon the fork in the road, the paths are described as being fundamentally identical. In terms of beauty, both paths are equally Ã¢â¬Å"fair,Ã¢â¬ and the overall Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦passing there / Had worn them really about the same. Ã¢â¬ It is only as an old man that the narrator looks back on his life and decides to place such importance on this particular decision in his life. During the first three stanzas, the narrator shows no sense of remorse for his decision nor might any acknowledgement that such a decision be important to his life. Yet, as an old man, the narrator attempts to give a sense of order to his past and perhaps explain why certain things happened to him. Of course, the excuse that he took the road Ã¢â¬Å"less travelled byÃ¢â¬ is false, but the narrator still clings to this decision as a defining moment of his life, not only because of the path that he chose but because he had to make a choice in the first place. So now, we will remember American poet, Robert Frost for his ingenious input into such universal truths and how such knowledge can be extracted from his points of view. He is now gone from this Earth, but let us remember him, for his works, for inspiring us to take the road less taken when we come to our own cross roads, to temper our relationships with fire and ice. With these works, dear Robert has left us with enough knowledge and understanding to replace the hole that he has made. How to cite Eulogy -Robert Frost, Papers
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
It may be defined as a technique of locating machines, processes and plant services within the factory so as to achieve the right quantity and quality of output at the lowest possible cost of manufacturing. It involves a judicious arrangement of production facilities so that workflow is direct. Principles regarding the plant layout A scientific criterion for determining a good Plant Layout: 1. Integration: Integration of men, money, materials and machines and support services in order to get the optimum output of resources. 2. Cubic space utilization: Utilization of both horizontal and vertical spaces and height is very important to use the space as much as possible. 3. Minimum distance: Minimum travel of men and material should be implemented means; the total distance travel by the men and material should be minimized as much as possible. Further straight line movements should be promoted. 3. Floor: Arranging the floor to move the material/finished products in forward direction towards the final stage. We will write a custom essay sample on Plant Layout or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page 4. Maximizing coordination: Entry into and disposal from any department should be in such manner that it s most convenient to the issuing or receiving departments. The layout should be consider as a whole. 5. Minimum flexibility: The layout should be able to modify when necessary. 6. Maximum accessibility: All servicing and maintenance points should be readily accessible. For example; equipment should not be placed against a wall because necessary servicing or maintenance cannot be carried out easily. Further; equipments or other necessary units keep in front of a fuse box will impede the work of the electrician. 7. Safety security: Due consideration to industrial safety methods is necessary. Care must be taken not only of the persons operating the equipment, but also of the passes-by, who may be required to go behind equipment as the back of which may be unsafe. 8. Minimum handling: Reduce the material handling to the minimum. Material being worked on should be kept at working height and never have to be placed on the floor if it is to be lifted later. The following principles also can be taken in to account when planning for a good plant layout; Ã¢â¬ ¢The geographical limitations of the site; Interaction with existing or planned facilities on site such as existing roadways, drainage and utilities routings; Ã¢â¬ ¢Interaction with other plants on site; Ã¢â¬ ¢The need for plant operability and maintainability; Ã¢â¬ ¢The need to locate hazardous materials facilities as far as possible from site boundaries and people living in the local neighborhood; Ã¢â¬ ¢The need to prevent confinement where release of flamm able substances may occur; Ã¢â¬ ¢The need to provide access for emergency services; The need to provide emergency escape routes for on-site personnel; Ã¢â¬ ¢The need to provide acceptable working conditions for operators. PLANT LAYOUT TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES Procedure to identify the necessity of revising existing layout A scientific layout study is a disciplined objective procedure that clearly determines the goals to be attained, collects all relevant facts, thoroughly analyses the data and achieves an improved layout. The following are the steps in studying the feasibility of revising a layout. (i) Objectives of the investigation are to be formulated. ii) Collect the layout drawings of existing plant. (iii) analyze the information available on present layout with the help of flow diagram, process charts, analysis of service activities etc. (iv) develop a new plan of layout by means of improved flow diagram, process charts and final drawing of revised layout. Factors responsible fo r inefficient layout can be Factors responsible for inefficient layout can be : (i) layout planning is entrusted to unqualified/incompetent persons. (ii) various departmental heads are given the responsibility of planning the layout. This leads to unhealthy competition for location and floor space and irrational emphasis on some plant activities. In the absence of any centralized control over layout department makes whatever revisions it fells are necessary with the result that plant operation as a whole suffers form high production costs. (iii) The site selected for the plant may impose restriction on the choice of good layout. Poor site can be characterized by poor rail and road connection, inadequate or no outdoor storage space and no prospect of low cost plant expansion. iv) the choice of unsuitable building may result in high production costs e. g the need of multi-story building may not have been recognized initially. (v) existing layout may not have provisions for future plant expansion. (vi) ineffective sales forecasting and production planning activiti9es may adversely affect an efficient plant layout. (vii) highly specialized plant facilities in a layout imposes limitations of the products the firm can offer in the market. (viii) poor preventive maintenance results in machine breakdown on interruption in production, which further leads to wasteful plant layout revisions. Revising and improving plant Layout To maintain operating efficiently over a period of time, the existing plant layout must ordinarily be modified and improved continuously. There reasons are: (i) Increase in demand of the product may need expansion of manufacturing facilities. Expansion of plant may be due to (a) Output of new products in search of profit prospects e. g manufacture of electronic items, food industry, automobiles etc. periodically revise their existing models styles. b) the horizontally integrated programme can expand only within the field of one main category of products whereas vertically integrated product program can expand to produce as many different products. (c) Plant expansion can be done to produce by-products. A by-product is a commodity the production of which i facilitated by the production of the main line of products e. g chemical products or waste material is considered a potential starting point for a new product gained form the distillation of coal . In industry every end product e. g firms manufacturing leather goods can use waste leather pieces to produce washers,shoe soles etc. Similarly glass waste can be used in and papers. (d) Sometimes there may be excess plant capacity which results in increased production costs. The unused capacity can be used to manufacture new products. This may need some revision of the facilities and layout. (ii) To acquire more plant efficiency by using new technology: the use of advance technology in manufacturing systems may be characterized by increased mechanization, using modern sources of fuel and energy; new development sin process, materials, product design and scientific management . a) increased mechanization implies substitution of machine process for manual process, large capacity machines for smaller ones, and complex mechanical devices for simpler ones. Greater output at lower costs can be achieved by reduction in amount and king of labour required to produce goods. This may be done by elimination of one or more hand operations, increase in speed of machines, etc. (b) fuel and energy development: Technological progr ess can be seen through the use of new and improved forms of power e. g mechanical system of belts, shafts and pulleys is being rapidly by direct electric drive motor. c ) developments in process, material etc. can be judged form the use of automatic chemical process, increased efficiency in use of raw material by producing by products, product design may be improved for reduction in cost of production or attaining greater product simplification. Economy is attained by reducing unnecessary variety in the products. (iii) improving the layout through analysis and work simplification: A progressive management is always on look or improvement in plant facilities to save it from obsolescence. The evils of poor layout are usually concealedÃ¢â¬ hidden costsÃ¢â¬ . There may be unnecessary handling, waste motions, delay in storage and other hidden expenses. Factors relevant in the choice of the Layout There some various factors relevant in the choice of the layout 1)Climatic conditions of factors relevant in the choice of the layout 2)Location of the Plant of factors relevant in the choice of the layout 3)Nature of Manufacturing System of factors relevant in the choice of the layout 4)Size of Output of factors relevant in the choice of the layout 5)Nature of the product of factors relevant in the choice of the layout Features of a good Layout The layout of plant can be planned in a number of ways but a good layout should possess some basic characteristics, namely: (i) There should be sufficient space for the workers as well as for the equipment to perform their functions. This will ensure smooth and continuous flow of production process. (ii) Must provide adequate safety and security to workers against accidents or injury e. g. Provision of firefighting equipment, first-aid boxes etc. (iii) Sufficient gang-way space for materials, workers and semi-finished goods. This leads to increase in efficiency. iv) Arrangement of machines and equipment should be such that minimum material handlings necessary for low cost processing. (v) Stores for in-process material should be provided at some convenient place i. e. not far from the place of operations. (vi) Supervision, co-ordination and control of the activity should be effectively and easily executed. (vii) There should be sufficient scope for making adjustments and modifications whenever any need arises i. e. the layout should be flexible. Typical weakness in a poor plant layout The following characteristics are indicative of weaknesses in any layout plan: (i) low production density and under utilization of plant capacity. (ii) lack of flexibility in the plant production facilities. (iii) long processing time due to too many delays, temporary storage, bottle-necks etc. (vi) improper utilization of plant site including inaccessibility to the rail road siding, wasted outdoor area etc. (v) Over-specialization of production facilities. (vi) Improper location and ineffective integration of parts fabrication and subassembly feeder lines with the final assembly lines. vii) Uneconomical material handling. Lack of gravity handling and channelized flow of work. (viii) Costly inspection and difficulty in maintaining quality standards. (ix) Inadequate storage facilities. (x) Equipment and production machinery not accessible for maintenance and repair due to layout. (xi) Poor lighting, ventilation, air cleaning arrangement is in the layout. (xii) Inadequate safety provis ions for workers. Steps in planning the layout for a new enterprise There are some various steps of planning i) The first thing is planning a layout is to study the objectives, production plan and the nature of machines, equipment and manufacturing operations involved in the production process. Select the equipment on the basis of product design and volume of the output to be attained. In other words the layout of the plant should be functional in the production of a specified product at the required rate of output. (ii) Accumulate layout data: machine data cards, machine load charts and templates of equipment. (iii) On the basis of information collected in step (ii) develop process charts which are vital in the development of a sound layout. These charts summaries the production activities that are required to achieve the manufacturing objectives. (iv) Develop an over-all flow plan of operations for efficient processing and materials handling. The best flow of work both horizontal and vertical and the integration of operations form the receipt of the raw materials to storage of finished goods are the objectives to be attained. Process charts. Machine load data, production rate desired etc. should be considered in drafting the plan. (v) The sequence of mechanical operations is studied to fix the position of respective machines performing desired operations. vi) Select best suited type of building and develop a tentative plot plan for the site. The exact specifications of the building are designated only after the layout is developed in considerable detail. (vii) Layout templates or models of individual production machines and space for service activities: materials handling, receiving and shipping, inspection, storage, ma intenance, offices etc. according to flow plan operations. (viii) Decision about the location of services facilities like cafeteria, toilets etc. Inside the plant building is taken, keeping into consideration the requirements of the produciton process and comforts of the workers. (ix) The position of windows, ventilators, electric fittings, drainage of the layout are drawn and the production run is tested. (x) After analyzing all the details in steps (i) to (vii), drawings of the layout are drawings of the layout are drawn and the production run is tested. (xi) Modifications can be done according to the experience of test runs. Model of a layout The model of a layout can be made by studying the operations involved in the production process. i) Key operations are located. (ii) Locate main and minor gangways. These should be preferred near the walls and not across the floor. (iii) Locate the subsidiary equipments viz. rubbish bins, telephones etc. In a good layout packing department should be near to dispatching point whereas inspection place should be located near the windows for proper daylight. In addition to this the followi ng specific points should be kept in mind for the layout of machines: (i) space occupied by a machine must include some overhang space for the travel of any part or for the movement of material. ii) Gangways must be adequate for the collection and delivery of material. (iii) Floor must be strong enough not only to carry the machine load but also to bear the load of semi-finished and finished goods. (iv)Servicing facilities and safety devices must be easily accessible. (v) Sufficient space around the machine must be provided so that operator can move freely to do his work. It should be observed that he layout of an organization has an impact on other functional areas. There is a strange integration between layout planning and other decision areas such as work measurement and method study.